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Numerator

Number of female deaths due to breast cancer (ICD-10 code C50)

Denominator

Number of females

Methodology

Death due to malignant neoplasm of the female breast (ICD-10 code C50).

FOR SINGLE DATA YEARS: Death rates are calculated based on the resident population of the United States for the data year involved. For census years (e.g. 2010), population counts enumerated as of April 1 are used. For all other years, populations estimates as of July 1 are used. Postcensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for years after a census year and match the data year vintage (e.g. July 1, 2011 resident population estimates from Vintage 2011 are used as the denominator for 2011 rates). Intercensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for the years between censuses (e.g. 1991-1999, 2001-2009). Race-specific population estimates for 1991 and later use bridged-race categories.

FOR MULTIPLE DATA YEARS: Death rates are calculated based on the sum of the resident populations for each of the data years involved (e.g. the denominator of a rate for 2008-2010 combined is the sum of the population estimates for 2008, 2009, and 2010). For census years (e.g. 2010), population counts enumerated as of April 1 are used. For all other years, populations estimates as of July 1 are used. Postcensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for years after a census year and match the data year vintage (e.g. July 1, 2011 resident population estimates from Vintage 2011 are used as the denominator for 2011 rates). Intercensal population estimates are used in rate calculations for the years between censuses (e.g. 1991-1999, 2001-2009). Race-specific population estimates for 1991 and later use bridged-race categories.

At the National level this Indicator uses Age-Adjustment Groups:

  • Total: < 1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
  • Race/Ethnicity: < 1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
  • Country of Birth: < 5, 5-17, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75+
  • Geographic Location: < 1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+
  • Marital Status: 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, 75-84, 85+

Trend Issues

Mortality data by marital status were not available for 60% of Georgia’s records in 2008 and 94% of Georgia’s records in 2009. Therefore, 2008 and 2009 data by marital status should be interpreted with caution.

Interventions

Cancer Prevention & Control, Client-oriented Screening Interventions: One-on-One Education

One-on-one education is provided in person or by telephone to encourage individuals to be screened for cancer.

Cancer Prevention & Control, Client-oriented Screening Interventions: Reducing Out-of-pocket Costs

Some interventions seek to increase cancer screening by reducing out-of-pocket costs.

Cancer Prevention & Control, Client-oriented Screening Interventions: Reducing Structural Barriers

Many barriers can make it difficult for people to seek screening for cancer.

Cancer Prevention & Control, Client-oriented Screening Interventions: Client Reminders

Reminders include letters, postcards, or phone calls to alert clients that it is time for their cancer screening.

Cancer Screening - Small Media

Small media include videos and printed materials such as letters, brochures, and newsletters.

Cancer Prevention & Control, Provider-Oriented Screening Interventions: Provider Assessment and Feedback and Provider Reminders and Recall

Provider-oriented interventions aim to increase recommendation and delivery of screening for cancers by health care providers.

Genetic Risk Assessment and BRCA Mutation Testing for Breast and Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility

The USPSTF recommends that women whose family history is associated with an increased risk for deleterious mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes be referred for genetic counseling and evaluation for BRCA testing.

Screening for Breast Cancer

The USPSTF recommends biennial screening mammography for women aged 50 to 74 years.

Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer

The USPSTF recommends that clinicians discuss chemoprevention with women at high risk for breast cancer and at low risk for adverse effects of chemoprevention.