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The U.S. Census Bureau, with support from other Federal agencies, created the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program to provide more current estimates of selected income and poverty statistics than those from the most recent decennial census.


  • U.S. Census Bureau (Census)

Data Years Available

State and county estimates are available back to 1993. School district estimates are available back to 1995.


Estimates are created for school districts, counties, and states.

Response rate and sample size

These estimates combine data from administrative records, intercensal population estimates, and the decennial census with direct estimates from the American Community Survey to provide consistent and reliable single-year estimates. These model-based single year estimates are more reflective of current conditions than multi-year survey estimates.

Interpretation Issues

Differences between direct survey estimates obtained from different sources (Census 2000, CPS ASEC, ACS) reflect both differences in the true levels of income and poverty (when comparing estimates for different places or different years), as well as differences in the methods by which the survey data were collected and the estimates were made. For more information see: